The blockchain banknotes for Currencies

The ownership blockchain banknotes can offer full decentralization and good scalability for cryptocurrencies. I think it could also work for Diem.


As we all know, the PoW-based blockchains have serious flaws in terms of scaling. Because the performance is too low and the cost of electricity is too large, they can never become global-scale currencies.

And they are not as well decentralized as stated. PoW tries to get decentralization with voting of computing power. While computing power can be purchased freely. In fact PoW is PoWealth. If someone among the mega-rich wanted to attack Bitcoin, he could do it by simply buying or renting 51% of the computing power.

We remember, the banknote-based currencies work much better. They are efficient, they cost less, and they could not be attacked by the rich. For these reasons, some people have tried to print physical banknotes for Bitcoin.

This is obviously not a good idea. Physical banknotes can not be transferred online and can not be guaranteed to be unique. Instead, we can make banknotes by the ownership blockchains. Each blockchain for one banknote.

The banknotes

An ownership blockchain is private. It has an owner and only the owner can add blocks. Block addition on a private blockchain does not require a consensus algorithm.

When adding a block, the owner can write in the block: I would give the blockchain to Alice. Then, Alice becomes the new owner of the blockchain. Only she can give the blockchain to another user by adding the next block.

In this way, the ownership blockchain can be passed through the crowd with no need of consensus algorithms. If there are many ownership blockchains, they run in high decentralization and scalability. There is no disadvantage caused by PoW.

Every ownership blockchain can record the history of its ownership well. It is enough to act as a banknote, because ownership is the only variable for a working banknote.

Like a physical banknote, every Ownership Blockchain Banknote(OBB) has a fixed denomination, which never changes in payments. The payer selects some OBBs from his, makes up the amount to be paid, transfers the selected OBBs to the payee, and the payment is completed.


An ownership blockchain could be forked if the current owner adds multiple blocks at the same location. This is clearly a violation. We have three methods to deal with it.

  1. To punish the offender. Users should make sure every block has been broadcast, whatever he is the payer or payee. Once we see multiple conflict blocks are broadcast, we should block the offender at once. Although there is no real account and we can not punish the real people, we may set a rule for every new account to destroy some OBBs before activation. Once the account is blocked, the offender will suffer losses to build a new account.
  2. To choose the branch that broadcasts first. For the multiple conflict blocks, we determine that the first broadcast block is valid. If the blocks were broadcast in such a short time that users in th network do not get the same order, all the payees of the conflict blocks may notice the violation in time and reject the payment. The double spending will never succeed. We must stay online to record the broadcast order. Otherwise, we can reject the forked OBBs for all branches. With a very small probability of network problems, honest users may get different orders, then they may reject the forked OBB from each other and pay with other OBBs.
  3. To merge forked OBBs. When the branches of one OBB are transferred to one user, the user can add one block on all branches to merge it. As a reward, the merge block offers its maker the right to build a new OBB with random denomination. So we can guarantee the number of forked OBBs is limited.

Methods 1 and 2 guarantee that there is no benefit but loss in forking an OBB. Method 3 guarantees even if someone would attack with significant losses, he can not harm the system.

We never make decisions through any forms of voting to avoid Sybil Attacks. All decisions are based on reliable evidence and not on the free will of people.

We can guarantee each OBB to be unique by setting the Id to a signature of the inherent infomation.


For security reasons, we have to broadcast every block immediately. It may cause performance problems when the network grows large. We may solve it by grouping.

Randomly divide the OBBs into multiple groups. Each user may join some groups and try to use the OBBs in the groups first. New blocks are broadcast only to the users in the group of the OBB. If two users have frequent transactions, they should join the same group and pay by the banknotes in the common group for security and performance.

Feedback is highly appreciated.

If in doubt or suggestion or other ideas, please write to me.